Stem Cells, Bone Marrow Transplants and the Procedure Performed
What is bone marrow?
Bone marrow is a tissue that is located inside of bones. The tissue is soft and considered to be ‘spongy’. It is situated in the center of the bone. Their are two different types of bone marrow, one is called myeloid and another is simply known as fatty tissue. Myeloid is called red bone marrow. Stem cells are created inside of bone marrow.
Different types of stem cells
Their are two types of stem cells, one is called hematopoietic and the other is called mesenchymal. Let’s look at the different between the two marrows and the type of stem cells they contain. Red bone marrow contains hematopoitic cells. Hema is Greek for blood. The entire word means the formation of blood. Red blood cells are produced in in a person every day in order to keep them well and healthy. The ability to produce red blood cells lie in the core of the bone.
The other stem cell called mesenchymal- which is the yellow bone marrow produces 3 things, bone, cartilage, fat. If you are unfamiliar with cartilage, it is an elastic tissue, it is considered to be very resilient. It job is to cover and protect the the very end of bones. You will find that it is situated near a person’s joints. However, cartilage is also found in the ear, the nose, rib cage, bronchial tubes and in other areas.
Now, let’s take a closer look at hematopoietic stem cells. Their isn’t just one type of hematopoietic stem cell, their are two. The name of one is called regenerative capacity and potency. Two features are contained inside of the these cells. One feature is the ability to renew and the other is the ability to differential. So, the cell that contains the renewal property can actually recreate a cell which is homogeneous to itself. While the other cell can produce more mature cells.
To explain further stem cells are created and situated in bone marrow. They go through stages of growth. Some stem cells will continue permanently as stem cells while others will move maturing into blood cells. Stem cells is what is needed during bone marrow transplants. Without stem cells bone marrow transplants simply can not be performed.
Leukemia is a disease that is considered to be cancer of the blood. With Leukemia the stem cells in their bodies are not healthy. Either they were developed in an unhealthy way, they did not develop at all or they became damaged somehow. The purpose of bone marrow transplants whether it’s a bone marrow transplant in mumbai or a bone marrow transplant in the US, the objective of the procedure is the same.
What actually happens during a bone transplant?
During bone marrow transplants the bone marrow of the patient is replaced. This is important, because healthy bone marrow is vital to our survival, so if the bone marrow is damaged or if it is producing unhealthy stem cells, the result will be negative. During the procedure bone marrow is taken out of a donor or out of the patient from another area of the body. The marrow is then inserted back into the body of the patient, in most cases via a drip infusion.
After a couple of weeks, the cells that were injected into the body of the patient will began to create healthy white and red cells. During this process the patient is closely watched. It will be important for the doctor to watch the formation of the cells to make sure that they are reproducing.
Worldwide annually, more than 50,000 stem cell/bone marrow transplants occur on an annual basis. The typical cost of a bone marrow transplant ranges from $800,000 to $350,000, depending on the type of transplant. This cost varies greatly from country to country and region to region. If the individual receiving the transplant, the cost is reduced greatly, starting at $75,000 to $200,000.
The procedures that are included in the cost of the transplants are the examinations. chemotherapy, the actual extraction of the cells (if required), the inoculation of the cells, tests and follow up examinations after the transplant.